The term “effective line of control” was allegedly used by Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai in a 1959 memo to Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. [2] The delimitation existed as an informal ceasefire line between India and China after the Sino-Indian War of 1962-1993, when their existence was officially accepted as an “effective line of control” in a bilateral agreement. [5] In recent months, there has been a series of skirmishes and pataquations between Chinese and Indian forces along controversial and populated parts of the Sino-Indian border. The largest escalation occurred in mid-June in the Galwan Valley heights of the Himalayan region along the 2,100-mile Current Control Line (LAC). The LAC is a loose demarcation line of the disputed area, divided into three sectors, and its western sector separates the Indian-controlled area of Eastern Ladakh from the China-managed Aksai Chin area (also claimed by India). Although the exact details of the collision of 15 Some experts have drawn attention to a number of factors, including the two parties who cite violations of existing agreements, military rearmament and infrastructure/road development near the LAC, and the revocation of the autonomous status of Jammu-Kachmir by the Indian government, which led to the creation of the Lakhda Union Empire, as a contribution to the current impasse. Senior Indian and Chinese military commanders are currently in their fourth round of talks to “negotiate the next stage of withdrawal between the two armies along the Effective Line of Control (LAC) ” in order to “reduce tensions along the disputed border.” Special Representatives (SR) also held diplomatic discussions and negotiations on the border issue established in 2003 and on the India-China Border Work and Coordination Mechanism (WMCC) established in 2012. Since the 1962 war, the two countries have concluded various bilateral agreements as confidence-building measures (CBM) to avoid an escalation of the situation, including the high-profile 1996 agreement and the “dominant practice” of not using weapons near the LA, which stems from this agreement and others. Below, we have outlined the various bilateral agreements and the government and international sources, where they are accessible: the two nations are also competing for the construction of infrastructure along the border, also known as the effective line of control. The construction of a new road to an altitude base in India is seen as one of the main triggers for a clash with Chinese troops in June that claimed the lives of at least 20 Indian soldiers. Military tensions at the border are reflected in growing political tensions that have weighed on relations between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping. A key element of the 1993 and 1996 agreements is that both sides limit their forces to a minimum in areas along the ZONE, Singh said. However, the agreements do not specify the minimum level.

The 1996 agreement limits the use of large categories of armaments near the LAC, including tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, 75 mm or more caliber guns, mortars of 120 mm or more, and various missiles.